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Neurological Glossary

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Fissure of the spinal cord resulting in exposure of the incompletely folded cord along the back

Symptoms and signs associated with spinal nerve root compression

Ramsy-Hunt syndrome
Facial paralysis, hyperacusis, loss of taste, and vesicles on the eardrum, external auditory meatus, or palate due to herpes zoster infection of the geniculate ganglion

Raphe nuclei
Nuclei located within the medial portion of the reticular formation in the brainstem that secrete serotonin

Raymond syndrome
Ipsilateral lateral rectus palsy and contralateral hemiplegia sparing the face due to a ventral pontinelesion affecting the abducens nerve fascicles and corticospinal tract (but sparing the facial nerve)

Episodic attacks of symptoms with rapid recovery to normal health; implies repeating episodes of a single process (e.g., transient ischemic attacks (TIA), seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis)

Red desaturation
Finding of dimmer perception of the colour red in an eye affected by optic nerve disease such as optic neuritis; sign of subtle asymmetry in optic nerve function since colour desaturation may occur despite normal visual acuity

Red nucleus
Oval nucleus centrally placed in the upper midbrain reticular formation that receives fibres from the deep cerebellar nuclei and cerebral cortex and projects to the cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and probably thalamus

The process of regaining function through active treatment, such as occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech and language therapy

Clinical course of multiple sclerosis characterized by episodic attacks of symptoms with recovery to normal health

REM behaviour disorder
Disorder occurring during REM sleep in which the normal motor atonia is partially or completely absent such that dreams can be acted out with punching, kicking, and jumping out of bed

REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep)
Sleep stage in which vivid dreaming occurs; identified by the occurrence of rapid eye movements under closed eyelids, motor atonia, low voltage EEG pattern, bursts of muscular twitching, irregular breathing, irregular heart rate, and increased autonomic activity.

Repetitive nerve stimulation
Nerve conduction study in which a brief series of shocks is applied to a motor nerve before and after brief exercise of a muscle supplied by that nerve; useful for evaluating disorders of neuromuscular transmission such as myasthenia gravis (decremental response see) and Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome (incremental response seen).

Respite care
Care given to someone for a short period, usually away from their own home, so their family can have a rest from caring for them.

Resting tremor
Medium-frequency (3-6 Hz) tremor that occurs maximally with the affected body at rest rather than with holding a sustained posture or making an intentional movement; common in Parkinson disease

Restless legs syndrome
Sleep disorder characterized by tingling, creepy-crawly, or aching sensation in the legs and sometimes arms as well as motor restlessness that tends to occur at rest (especially around the patient�s usual bedtime) and to be relieved temporarily by movement

Reticular activating system (RAS)
The activating mechanisms that lie in or near the central gray matter of the diencephalon, midbrain, and rostral pons and are responsible for mediating consciousness

Reticular formation
Heterogeneous collection of neurons scattered throughout the brainstem tegmentum that either modulate forebrain and spinal cord activity or coordinate the firing patterns of lower motor neurons engaged in reflexive or stereotypical somatic motor and visceral motor activities

Reticulospinal tract
Descending pathway from the reticular formation of the brainstem to spinal inter- and motor neurons that control anti-gravity posture and locomotion

Light-sensitive neuronal layer lining the back of the eye that sends impulses through the optic nerve that are translated into a visual image; part of the central nervous system

A tendency to walk backward involuntarily that can occur in Parkinson disease

Lower body and leg splints to help walking

Hindbrain; includes the pons, cerebellum, and medulla

Righting reflex
Ability to make postural adjustments in response to perturbations

Extreme stiffness of muscles � continuous resistance to passive motion

CT or MRI contrast enhancement surrounding a lesion that has blood-brain barrier breakdown, such as metastatic tumour or abscess

Risk factors
The possible underlying causes (for the stroke) such as smoking, high blood pressure, ethnic group, family history of stroke.

Walking Aids

Romberg test
Inability to maintain upright posture when feet together and eyes closed; indicates impaired proprioception

Rooting reflex
Normal neonatal reflex consisting of turning the head towards a stimulus presented to the side of the mouth, latching on, and sucking

Toward the head or nose

meaning �from the nose to the tail�; used to describe the sequence of symptoms referable to progressively lower parts of the brainstem characteristic of transtentorial herniation

Rubral tremor
Low-frequency (<4.5 Hz) tremor often of irregular, coarse rhythm that is present during both rest and intentional movements and typically follows cerebellar outflow pathway lesions

Ruffini corpuscles
Thermoreceptors in the skin


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